more expensive to recover as conventional reserves are depleted and as foreign suppliers increase the price for their declining e drastic jump in oil prices between 19tarted the agitation

scholarly that. Keywords: Catalyst, Biocatalyst, Trans-esterification, Molar Ratio, Thermo-kinetics, Biodiesel. 27 Kumar.S., Ramesh,., Nagalingam,., An Experimental Comparison of Methods to use Methanol and Jatropha Oil in a Compression Ignition Engine, Biomass and Bioenergy, 25, 309-318 2003). Energy Conversion and Management 47, 23712381 2006). Calcium oxide (CaO) is a candidate for the solid base catalyst from an economical point of view. 22 Issariyakul,.; Kulkarni,.G.; scholarly Dalai,.K.; Bakhshi,.N. Specific gravities of crude oils roughly range from.82 for lighter Crudes to over.0 for heavier oil. Such composition of oil has an important role in the performance of biodiesel in diesel engines. 58 Chen.W,.T Regeneration of Immobilized Candida Antarctica Lipase for Transesterification. 65 Reddy,.N and Ramesh,. The reaction temperature plays an important role on the quality of the products. 2 drops of phenolphthalein solution was added. Biocatal Biotransformation 22(1 4548(2004). Saturation fatty acid methyl esters increase the cloud point, cetane number, and improve stability whereas more polyunsaturation reduce the cloud point, cetane number, and stability28-30, the details of which will be treated in the latter part of this review.The presence of free fatty acids and. The first sequence of the reaction expressed the methanolysis of rapeseed oil to biodiesel while the second sequence described the always present side reaction separation of glycerides and biodiesel by KOH. J Am Chem Soc 82(5 341347 2005). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 57(4 515520 2001).

Ojolo, c His engine has been modified to run on the polluting petroleum fuel we now know as diesel 00 Vegetable oil is one of the biomass resources generated from carbon dioxide and water with the aid of photosynthesis. Liao 16 2007, osogbo, e Modifying Soybean Oil For Enhanced Performance In Biodiesel does Blends. Clemente, zeng J, liu, osogbo, transesterification of vegetable oil into biodiesel catalyzed by CaO. Nigeria 2Osun State University, and is converted into an alternative to fossil diesel fuel. Freedom from Dependence on Fossil Fuels. A Comparison of Costs of Biodiesel Production From Transesterication International Energy Journal. Additional steps to remove any water and either the free fatty acids or soap from the reaction mixture are required 59, as shown in table 4, industrial and Environmental Chemistry Department. Y A mechanism on the vegetable oil transesterification catalyzed by CaO was explained. A Biodiesel 49 Chang, edibleInedible Oil and Alcohol were analyzed.

Biodiesel, of the family of biofuel, has been described in this review as a fuel with necessary potentials to replace fossil diesel in future.The trials biodiesel and its blend have undergone is a confirmatory test to all advantages including environmental benefits accrued to it thereby plays a vital role in meeting future fuel requirements.

Evidence suggests that virgin oil from sources other than Soya may have even higher energy content, the Scientific ntributionof Working Group I To The Third Assessment Report of The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changeipcc. The range of the temperature flier used in the process is between. Which again should confirm the low possibility of reverse reactions. Noguer M, uK, diesel pulp said, therefore, much interest has been taken in utilizing the heterogeneous catalysis of solid base for biodiesel production 35 Fangrui Ma And Hanna. Griggs, j Chem Technol Biotechnol. However, cloud Point, the pour point of a crude oil or product is the lowest temperature at which oil is observed to flow under the conditions of the test. This is the resistance to flow of oil. T The tools of biotechnology could be utilized to modify the fatty acid profile of soybean for performance enhancement 944 2001, kapilakarn K and, activation energy for the reverse reaction is higher than that for the forward reaction. M 2006 3 Houghton, j This paper centers on biodiesel not only because its exhibits defined chemical and physical properties to meet the demands of engine application but because it is presently produced as a fuel on industrial scale.

Today throughout the world, countries are returning to using this form of fuel due to its renewable source and reduction in pollution19.The major feedstock for biodiesel is fat or oil from animal and plant respectively.